Each kind of these mineral fertilizers affects plants in a different way. Let’s investigate their effects in detail.
Nitrogen mineral fertilizers are produced out of ammonia (NH3) and nitric acid (HN03). Ammonia is received at the temperature of 400-500°С and at the pressure of several hundred atmospheres by affecting nitrogen by hydrogen produced of natural gas. Mineral fertilizers are absorbed by plants and enhance the growth of their leaves and stems thus promoting augmentation of green leaf mass. There are several basic types of nitrogen fertilizers: urea (carbamide), sodium niter (sodium nitrate, sodium saltpeter), ammonium nitrate (ammonium saltpeter), calcium nitrate (Norwegian saltpeter) and ammonium sulphate.
Urea is the most available and most used type of nitrogen fertilizers. It contains up to 46% of nitrogen. Urea is quickly absorbed by plants as it dissolves well in water and soil.
Ammonium nitrate contains up to 35% of nitrogen. Generally it is ammonium nitrate that is nourished as a main fertilizer.
Sodium nitrate contains 15-16% of nitrogen and 26% of sodium. Sodium nitrate is an alkaline fertilizer; therefore it is recommended to nourish acidic soils. Moreover the use of urea and ammonium nitrate leads to soil acidulation, that’s why it is reasonable to switch to sodium nitrate after nourishing soil with urea and ammonium nitrate for several years.
Calcium nitrate contains 17% of nitrogen and is also an alkaline Mineral fertilizers .
Ammonium sulphate contains up to 21% of nitrogen.
It is recommended to nourish neutral and alkaline soils.
Phosphorus mineral fertilizers are produced by affecting natural phosphates by sulphuric acid. These mineral fertilizers are essential for adequate rootage development; they speed up ripening of harvest, as phosphorus shortens vegetation period. The most common types of fertilizers are: superphosphate, precipitate and phosphorite meal (comminuted phosphorus).
Superphosphate, containing up to 21% of phosphorus, is a main phosphorus fertilizer. It easily dissolves in water and is suitable for all kinds of soil. There is also a double superphosphate which has up to 50% of phosphoric acid. It is produced of natural phosphates by affecting then by phosphoric acid.
Precipitate contains up to 40% of phosphoric acid. It nourishes acidic soils because it is capable to alkalify them.
Phosphorite meal contains up to 20% of phosphoric acid, dissolves badly in water and soil and has a long exposure time.
Potassium mineral fertilizers are produced of potassium ores. The largest deposit of potassium ores in Russia is Verkhne-Kamskoye deposit. The core of ore treatment technology lies in separating them from sodium chloride and other impurities by dissolving/crystallization and flotation. These mineral fertilizers are indispensable to enhance plant resistance to different unfavorable conditions including cold and moisture stress. Moreover these fertilizers activate ,an ability to withstand different diseases. The most famous potassium fertilizers are: potassium sulphate (lemery salt), potassium magnesia (potassium and magnesium sulphate), potassium chloride and potassium salts.
Potassium sulphate which contain up to 45% of this element is considered to be the best potassium fertilizer. It is generally used to nourish soil in spring soil preparation.
Potassium magnesia contains up to 30% of potassium. This mineral fertilizer has proven itself extremely efficient in case of light magnesium-poor soil.
Potassium chloride is a main potassium fertilizer. It has up to 63% of potassium; it is well absorbed by plants and suitable for any kind of soil.
Potassium salts contain up to 40% of potassium and a lot of chlorine. They are potent mineral fertilizers and that’s why they should be carefully applied.